Monday, 31 January 2011

February is getting busy: B-Sides, IISP and ISACA

Beside the day job, things are getting busier on the events front:

B-Sides San Francisco

With security conferences becoming ever more corporate, the 'underground' spin-off conferences seem to be attracting a wealth of skilled hackers and interesting security folks. As an example, while the Black Hat conference in Las Vegas is still huge, Def Con is where the more technical audience now goes.

The B-Sides conferences are continuing this trend, hosting ever larger free security conferences in parallel with major corporate events. So although RSA 2011 USA is in San Francisco from the 14th to the 18th of February, I am heading over to B-Sides San Francisco sponsored by the team at Stack Exchange for a very good reason:

The Security Stack Exchange site has only been in beta since late November and growth is already strong - it is attracting experienced IT and Information Security professionals as well as those who wish to improve their knowledge of the field - but although traffic through search engines is increasing, the key demographic for this site is exactly the sort of people I expect to meet, chat with, blog about etc at B-Sides and other security conferences. The Stack Exchange model has already proven itself - check out the growth and usage statistics over on Joel Spolsky's blog.

So I'll be tweeting throughout the event (and throughout the journey - as I'll have a fair amount of time between Edinburgh and San Francisco) using the following hashtags: #BsidesSF, #securitystackexchange, #roryalsop and #7elements as appropriate.

I'll also be submitting regular blog posts here at the 7 Elements blog, as well as on my own blog where relevant on talks, speakers, the event, the audience etc. from early to very late so if you're at the conference come and see me.

(The London B-Sides Conference call for papers is out already - this event coincides with Infosec in April. Some or all of 7 Elements will be there, so get it in your calendar now.)

IISP /ISACA Fraud Presentation

About 2 hours after I get back to Edinburgh I am hosting a talk by Louise Behan of the Lothian and Borders Serious Fraud Squad on behalf of both the Institute of Information Security Professionals and ISACA Scotland.
Louise is a very passionate speaker, and her talk promises to describe the real world impact of the failure of IT controls in a very direct way.
There are a couple of ways to register for this, so drop me an email and I'll let you know the best way for you.

More things on the horizon - keep watching this space!

Tuesday, 18 January 2011

Improvement and Education in the Security Community

As you'll have seen from the presentations we give and the events we host, 7 Elements has always been very keen on the continued professionalisation of information security, and in helping to provide training, guidance and steer back to the community. We do get a lot of queries from individuals in IT or Information Security roles asking for more ways to get information, improve their skillset or even just to learn from others.

Many of you may be familiar with the Stack Exchange family of websites - a question and answer site using reputation weightings to help individuals find answers that they can trust.

We have been working with a new Stack Exchange site - near the end of its public beta - that aims to provide security professionals with a forum to ask or answer questions around security, risk, governance etc.

Some examples to show the range of questions already on the site:

As more and more companies allow flexible / home working, this question is very relevant:

Securing the security guy's home office: what should we do?

Although Incident Response is often handled well in larger organisations, it is very relevant for smaller companies

Establishing routines on what to do if a PC gets stolen

Security around database password hashing:

If I hash passwords before storing them in my database, is that sufficient to prevent them being retrieved by anyone?

If you deal with information or IT security, governance or risk your input could be very valuable, or if you have questions in these areas someone on the forum could help you out. Either way, have a look and see what you think.

Tuesday, 4 January 2011

Threat Mapping and Security Testing within Virtualised Environments


The deployment of Virtualisation within existing network architectures and the resulting collapse of network zones on to single physical servers are likely to introduce radical changes to current architectural and security models, resulting in an increased threat to the confidentiality, integrity or availability of the data held by such systems. Recent experience has already shown that the use of Virtualisation can introduce single points of failure within networks and successful attacks can result in the ability to access data from across multiple zones that would have historically been physically segregated.

To deal with this change will require a corresponding change to the architectural and security models used and a full understanding of the associated risks/threats that Virtualisation brings.

The purpose of this post is to set out areas that will need to be explored in order to gain assurance that Virtual Environments do not introduce or aggravate potential security vulnerabilities and flaws that can be exploited by an attacker to gain access to confidential information, affect data integrity or reduce the availability of a service.

Virtualisation raises lots of questions, including:

  • Will the Virtual Environment breach existing security controls that protect the existing physical estate? If so, how?

  • What additional controls will be required?
  • Does the proposed change exceed risk appetite?

Threat Mapping

To explore these questions, a comprehensive threat mapping exercise should be undertaken to look at the level of risk and threats associated with Virtualisation. This exercise should be tailored to be specific to the environment / business market that you are in (for example – financial organisations will need to be aware of regulatory requirements such as PCI-DSS which could impact on the use of irtualisation.)

A detailed threat map will aid in the development of a robust architectural model as well as feed in to any assurance work conducted. Such activity should be completed at the design stage and, failing that, at the latest prior to any deployment, as reviewing potential threats after deployment can result in costly redesign and implementation work.

Any risks and potential vulnerabilities that are identified during the threat analysis phase should be mitigated with appropriate security controls and built in to the design prior to implementation. Security testing should then be arranged to verify that the risks have been effectively mitigated.

Of course, in some instances there will be environments where threat mapping is not part of usual business security practice. Where there this is the case, any team conducting assurance activity should complete a tactical threat mapping exercise as part of their engagement and to inform the direction and context of any testing / recommendations. A tactical threat mapping exercise is one where less time and effort is applied and is more focused on a ‘how would we attack this system’ basis. Such an approach will take into account possible attack scenarios and is likely to form the basis of a penetration testing scoping exercise.

Technology and functionality changes fast and this can lead to a change within the attack surface of an organisation. Threat assessments should be an on-going activity, even a tactical threat assessment on a regular basis to take in to how changes in technology deployed affect the efficiency of existing controls will aid in the organisational understanding of the threats posed and may help to avoid a costly breach or loss of data.

Example Questions

Questions that should be asked as part of a threat mapping exercise:

How will Virtualisation impact the patch management process?

  • Consideration will be needed in terms of patching and virus control being in a centralised environment. Virtualisation introduces the risk of out-of-sync Virtual Machines existing within the network. As an example, introduction of VM snapshot/rollback functionality adds new capability to undo changes back to a "known good" state, but within a server environment when someone rolls back changes, they may also rollback security patches or configuration changes that have been made.

Is there sufficient segregation of administrative duties?

  • Layer 2 devices are becoming virtualised commodities; this could lead to a new breed of ‘virtualisation administrators’ who straddle the role of traditional network / security engineers and thus holding the keys to the virtual kingdom. SANs Virtualisation admins will be responsible for assigning storage groups to specific VMs, so again they're may have rights across that network divide as well, essentially making them Network/Server/Storage admins from a rights perspective.

Is there a suitable security model in place?

  • Where multiple user groups / zones or where different risk appetites exist within an environment then separate security models should be created to contain breaches within one zone and help protect against know attack types.
  • No single security model should be applied across all groups or zones.

Is there suitable resiliency built in to the environment?

  • What level of resiliency is required in terms of disaster recovery / denial of service mitigation and are they in place and more importantly are they effective?
  • Is there sufficient Disaster Recovery built in to the environment?

How does the virtual environment interact with existing network architectures and authentication mechanisms?

  • Does this introduce a weakness to the environment that could be utilised by a malicious party?

Has a design review been completed?

  • Virtualised environments are complex, as such during the design stage effective and detailed review of the proposed design should be conducted to aid the development of a more robust and secure system. The output from threat modelling should be incorporated in to this review to ensure that a suitable design is implemented.

Are you outsourcing any component of the virtualised environment?

  • Third party relationships have become a major focus over the last few years with several high profile data loss incidents in the media. The contract with the vendor should include appropriate clauses to ensure data security, while formally enabling testing and remediation activities. More specifically the contract should facilitate regular security testing.
  • Does the outsource contract allow you to define physical location of your data? The jurisdiction can affect not only the threat model, but also your handling of risks.

To Close

Any security testing conducted against the virtual environment should follow detailed and industry standard methodologies (OWASP , CREST ,OSSTM ) and comprise both infrastructure testing / build reviews and security device configuration reviews (i.e. firewall rule sets). However specific testing to break out of the virtual environment will need to be included as the ability to access the restricted hardware layer will result in data leakage and potentially the ability to compromise any other attached Virtual Machines (gaining unauthorised access to user data and systems).

Essentially many of the areas of risk which are specific to virtualization arise from the capabilities which it provides. For example virtualisation allows for the hosting of systems from different networks on a single physical server. This can have benefits in terms of reduced costs/datacentre space requirements, but also introduces a new perimeter between networks, the Virtualization hypervisor. So if there is a security issue which affects the hypervisor it can allow attackers to jump from one network zone to another, effectively bypassing existing security controls such as Firewalls.